Liberate Public Schools
Introduction:  Anatomy of
Carlin v. Board of Education
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June 28, 1976

Crawford v. Board of Education, 17 Cal.3d 280 (Crawford I). Transformed Jackson dictum into constitutional doctrine as to both de jure and de facto segregation in California schools.

March 10, 1977


After a hearing and determination (upon the complaint by the Carlin Plaintiff-Class) that the Defendant School Board had “failed to take some reasonably feasible steps to alleviate school segregation and the harms inflicted by such (de facto) segregation,” the Court issued a Writ of Mandate commanding the Board —

  1. to present a “detailed plan to further alleviate racial segregation” in 23 named schools;
  2. to implement “some portion of the plan during the school year 1977-78 and to designate target dates for the operation of those portions of the plan, if any, that are to be implemented at a later date;” and
  3. to “serve and file a return to this Writ on or before June 13, 1977.”

November 6, 1979

Proposition 1 amended California Constitution (Sec. 7(a), Art. 1) to apply federal decisional law to disallow judicial pupil school assignment or pupil transportation to racially balance school districts not found to have caused de jure segregation.

December 15, 1980


Groundswell, an association of persons, along with six District students and their parents, intervened in opposition to court-ordered race balancing in the District schools, in behalf of similarly situated students, parents, and citizen-taxpayers. This opposition was presented formally at a hearing on July 16, 1981, and was reiterated throughout the pendency of the case. The White enrollment had declined to 55.4 percent. Next

Jackson Jackson v. Pasadena City School Dist., 59 Cal.2d 876 (1963)
Pasadena, California
Carlin   Carlin v. Board of Education, San Diego Unified School District,
San Diego Superior Court No. 303800 (1967-1998)
San Diego, California
Crawford I   Crawford v. Board of Education, 17 Cal.3d 280 (1976)
[related to BustopBoard of Ed., etc.]
Los Angeles, California
Carlin Board of Education v. Superior Court, 61 Cal.App.4th 411 (Feb.1998)
[conclusion of Carlin v. Board of Education]
San Diego, California
          Liberate: Anatomy, pages xi - xvi — Previous Next

Liberate Public Schools
from Government by Lawsuit

A Long Pro Bono Struggle
Against Racially Balancing Public School Students
in a Thirty-Year Lawsuit
by Elmer Enstrom, Jr.
A chronological presentation of the 30-year Carlin affirmative action lawsuit:
a legal battle to reassert the "separation of powers" concept
of a republican form of government embodied in our Constitution.
© 1998-2006, 2013 Enstrom Foundation Bookmark and Share